AI Profiling for POWER

Although there is plenty information on AI profiling for x86_64 and ARM architectures, there is almost none on POWER.

With that motivation in mind, this post aim to share some results on this subject.

The program profiled was a python script that had a pre-trained ResNet50 with ImageNet weights, which was obtained from TensorFlow API.
It aimed to classify 500 hot-dogs images downloaded from the ImageNet.
The profiling was done using Perf for collecting PMU data and ipmitool for energy consumption data.

Requirements for the pyhton script:

  • Bare-metal machine
  • ipmitool
  • python 3.6
  • TensorFlow 2.1.1

Machine Stats:

  • POWER9 Processor
  • CPU(s): 128
  • On-line CPU(s) list: 0-127
  • Thread(s) per core: 4
  • Core(s) per socket: 16
  • Socket(s): 2
  • NUMA node(s): 2
  • Model: 2.2

You can find information on how to install TensorFlow on POWER in this post:

Eleven tests were executed.

from tensorflow.keras.applications.resnet50 import ResNet50
from tensorflow.keras.preprocessing import image
from tensorflow.keras.applications.resnet50 import preprocess_input, decode_predictions
import numpy as np
import sys
import time
from datetime import datetime

begin = time.time()

#folder = sys.argv[1]
length = 731
length = int(sys.argv[1])
if (length > 731):
    print("Using maximum length: 731")
    lenght = 731
again = int(sys.argv[2])
folder_name = "hot_dog"

model = ResNet50(weights='imagenet')

images = []
count = 0
for i in range(length):
    img_path = folder_name + '/' + str(i) + '.jpg'  
    img = image.load_img(img_path, target_size=(224, 224))
    images[i] = np.expand_dims(images[i], axis=0)
    images[i] = preprocess_input(images[i])

for j in range(again):
    for i in range(length):
        prediction = model.predict(images[i])
        #print(decode_predictions(prediction[i], top=1)[0][0][1])
        strPrediction = decode_predictions(prediction, top=1)[0][0][1]
        if (strPrediction == 'hotdog'):
            count += 1
            #print(str(i) + " -> " + strPrediction)

print("Begin: " + datetime.utcnow().strftime("%H:%M:%S"))
print("End: " + datetime.utcnow().strftime("%H:%M:%S"))
print("RIGHTS: {}".format(count))
print("WRONGS: {}".format(again*length - count))
print("ACC: {}".format(count/(again*length)))
print("Time Elapsed: {}s".format(time.time() - begin))

Because the model is pre-trained, it obtained the same classification accuracy for every test.


Profiling using perf.

Perf is a profiling program included with the Linux kernel. Here it was used to instrument CPU performance counters.

PMUs used:


The following graphs shows the data fetched from those PMUs.
CPU Cycles:
CPU Cycles Instructions:
Instructions Cache-references:
Cache-references Cache-misses:
Cache-misses Branches:
Branches Branch-misses:
Branch-misses Time Elapsed:
Time Elapsed

Energy consumption.

Make sure you are running on a bare-metal machine.

How to use the ipmitool to get power consumption data: Install ipmitool through:

sudo apt-get install ipmitool

Then run the command:

sudo ipmitool dcmi power reading

Which is going to give you the output:

    Instantaneous power reading:                   262 Watts
    Minimum during sampling period:                248 Watts
    Maximum during sampling period:                263 Watts
    Average power reading over sample period:      257 Watts
    IPMI timestamp:                           Sun Nov  8 19:51:18 2020
    Sampling period:                          00000005 Seconds.
    Power reading state is:                   activated

This command was executed continuosly for 1500 seconds using a python script that would parse the results into a csv file. The data was used to plot the following graph:

Energy Consumption

It is possible to see the average of energy consumption for each test and, at the end, the energy consumption going back to a normal state. It can also be observed that there is an increase close to 100W when a test begins to run.

Matheus Fernandes
Computer Engineering undergrad student

I’m an undergrad student in Computer Engineering at UNICAMP.